Quotation Schubert, Peter, Willems, Jurgen. 2021. In the name of the stakeholder: An assessment of representation surpluses and deficits by nonprofit leaders. Nonprofit Management & Leadership. 31 (4), 639-664.




Nonprofit leaders face the challenge of making decisions within a complex environment of heterogeneous and often competing stakeholder claims. In such a setting, leaders not only make judgments about the power of their organization's stakeholders but they also make conscious choices about which stakeholders they personally represent while making organizational decisions. This study uses insights from stakeholder theory and agency theory to investigate (1) how nonprofit leaders' perceptions of stakeholder power and stakeholder representation are interrelated across a wide range of stakeholder groups and organizations, and (2) how perceptions of power and representation differ between board members and executive managers. Drawing on data from 491 nonprofit leaders, we find evidence of stakeholder representation surpluses and deficits for several stakeholders, although perceptions of these deficits and surpluses differ considerably between board members and managers. Our study holds important implications for nonprofit governance, the practice of stakeholder analysis, and the use of stakeholder constructs in future empirical research.


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  • Nonprofit
  • power
  • governance
  • factor analysis
  • stakeholder
  • representation surplus
  • representation deficit
  • representation
  • board members
  • managers

Publication's profile

Status of publication Published
Affiliation WU
Type of publication Journal article
Journal Nonprofit Management & Leadership
Citation Index SSCI
WU Journalrating 2009 A
WU-Journal-Rating new INF-A, STRAT-B, VW-D, WH-B
Language English
Title In the name of the stakeholder: An assessment of representation surpluses and deficits by nonprofit leaders
Volume 31
Number 4
Year 2021
Page from 639
Page to 664
Reviewed? Y
URL https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/nml.21445
DOI https://doi.org/10.1002/nml.21445
Open Access Y
Open Access Link https://doi.org/10.1002/nml.21445


Willems, Jurgen (Details)
Schubert, Peter (Hamburg University, Germany)
Institute for Public Management and Governance IN (Details)
Research areas (Ă–STAT Classification 'Statistik Austria')
5234 Administrative science (Details)
5308 Management sciences (Details)
5363 Non-profit-sector research (NPO, NPI) (Details)
6906 Public research (Details)
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