Quotation Spahl, Wanda, Österle, August. 2019. Stratified Membership. Health Care Access for Urban Refugees in Turkey. Comparative Migration Studies. 7 (42)




Turkey hosts more refugees than any other country in the world. Incoming numbers have increased steadily since the outbreak of the Syrian war in 2011. This raises enormous challenges for the host country, not least with regard to the provision of healthcare. This article examines the developments in the light of stratified membership theories. More specifically, it asks how far the healthcare system in Turkey can be categorised as a system of stratified membership for different groups of urban refugees, focusing on refugees from Syria, Iraq and Afghanistan. Following a theoretical debate about stratification in the provision of social rights, 16 semi-structured interviews with experts and active participants were carried out in Ankara to understand the situation of urban refugees in need of healthcare. The results confirm assumptions of stratified membership theories which understand citizenship in a broad sense as comprising the interconnected dynamics between social rights, legal status and identity requirements. Next to ethnic categories of origin defining the status in Turkey, factors such as language skills or the individual economic situation also play crucial roles for stratified membership both as an empirical fact and as a constructed practice.


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Publication's profile

Status of publication Published
Affiliation WU
Type of publication Journal article
Journal Comparative Migration Studies
Language English
Title Stratified Membership. Health Care Access for Urban Refugees in Turkey
Volume 7
Number 42
Year 2019
Reviewed? Y
DOI https://doi.org/10.1186/s40878-019-0148-0
Open Access Y


Österle, August (Details)
Spahl, Wanda (University of Vienna, Austria)
Institute for Social Policy IN (Details)
Research areas (ÖSTAT Classification 'Statistik Austria')
3911 Economics of the health system (Details)
5911 Social policy (Details)
5942 European integration (Details)
5952 Migration research, emigration -, (Details)
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