Quotation Willems, Jurgen. 2016. Building Shared Mental Models of Organizational Effectiveness in Leadership Teams Through Team Member Exchange Quality. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly. 45 (3), 568-592.




Because shared mental models are critical for consistent, accurate decision making, this study seeks to explain the extent to which mental models are shared on the basis of team cognition theory and social constructionism. This study thus provides new insights into how the social dynamics among nonprofit leaders can explain mental models on nonprofit effectiveness. Specifically, team member exchange (TMX) quality should relate to agreement within leadership teams. Building on recent multilevel team research, this study regards the relationship theoretically as a separate actor and partner effect, which better reveals the underlying social processes. A multilevel data sample of 402 leaders from 44 nonprofit organizations provides support for the hypotheses, offering insights into the multilevel, emergent nature of team behavior and shared mental models. Practical recommendations focus on the central role of CEOs and board chairs, and on the need for a stronger consensus assessment in nonprofit performance evaluations.


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  • team cognition
  • emergent team behavior
  • team
  • social construction
  • team member exchange quality

Publication's profile

Status of publication Published
Affiliation External
Type of publication Journal article
Journal Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly
Citation Index SSCI
WU Journalrating 2009 A
WU-Journal-Rating new INF-A, MAN-A, STRAT-B, VW-C, WH-B
Language English
Title Building Shared Mental Models of Organizational Effectiveness in Leadership Teams Through Team Member Exchange Quality
Volume 45
Number 3
Year 2016
Page from 568
Page to 592
Reviewed? Y
URL https://www.researchgate.net/publication/283642308_Building_shared_mental_models_of_organizational_effectiveness_in_leadership_teams
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0899764015601244
Open Access N


Reputation Management for Nonprofit Organizations
Willems, Jurgen (Details)
Research areas (Ă–STAT Classification 'Statistik Austria')
5234 Administrative science (Details)
5308 Management sciences (Details)
5363 Non-profit-sector research (NPO, NPI) (Details)
5529 Group dynamics (Details)
6906 Public research (Details)
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