Quotation Stamkou, Eftychia, van Kleef, Gerben A., Homan, Astrid C., Gelfand, Michele J., van de Vijver, Fons J.R., van Egmond, Marieke C., Boer, Diana, Phiri, Natasha, Ayub, Nailah, Kinias, Zoe, Cantarero, Katarzyna, Treister, Dorit Efrat, Figueiredo, Ana, Hashimoto, Hirofumi, Hofmann, Eva, Lima, Renata P., Lee, I-Ching. 2019. Cultural Collectivism and Tightness Moderate Responses to Norm Violators: Effects on Power Perception, Moral Emotions, and Leader Support. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 45 (6), 947-964.




Responses to norm violators are poorly understood. On one hand, norm violators are perceived as powerful, which may help them to get ahead. On the other hand, norm violators evoke moral outrage, which may frustrate their upward social mobility. We addressed this paradox by considering the role of culture. Collectivistic cultures value group harmony and tight cultures value social order. We therefore hypothesized that collectivism and tightness moderate reactions to norm violators. We presented 2,369 participants in 19 countries with a norm violation or a norm adherence scenario. In individualistic cultures, norm violators were considered more powerful than norm abiders and evoked less moral outrage, whereas in collectivistic cultures, norm violators were considered less powerful and evoked more moral outrage. Moreover, respondents in tighter cultures expressed a stronger preference for norm followers as leaders. Cultural values thus influence responses to norm violators, which may have downstream consequences for violators’ hierarchical positions.


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Publication's profile

Status of publication Published
Affiliation WU
Type of publication Journal article
Journal Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
Citation Index SSCI
WU-Journal-Rating new WH-A
Language English
Title Cultural Collectivism and Tightness Moderate Responses to Norm Violators: Effects on Power Perception, Moral Emotions, and Leader Support
Volume 45
Number 6
Year 2019
Page from 947
Page to 964
Reviewed? Y
URL https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/0146167218802832
DOI na
Open Access Y
Open Access Link https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167218802832


Hofmann, Eva (Former researcher)
Ayub, Nailah (Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada)
Boer, Diana (University of Koblenz-Landau, Germany)
Cantarero, Katarzyna (SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Wroclaw, Poland)
Figueiredo, Ana (Universidad Mayor, Santiago, Chile)
Gelfand, Michele J. (University of Maryland, United States/USA)
Hashimoto, Hirofumi (Yasuda Women’s University, Hiroshima, Japan)
Homan, Astrid C. (University of Amsterdam, Netherlands)
Kinias, Zoe (INSEAD, Singapore)
Lee, I-Ching (National Taiwan University, Taiwan)
Lima, Renata P. (University of Oxford, United Kingdom)
Phiri, Natasha (University of Oxford, United Kingdom)
Stamkou, Eftychia (University of Amsterdam, Netherlands)
Treister, Dorit Efrat (Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beersheba, Israel)
van de Vijver, Fons J.R. (Higher School of Economics, Russian Federation)
van Egmond, Marieke C. (Jacobs university Bremen, Germany)
van Kleef, Gerben A. (University of Amsterdam, Netherlands)
Institute for International Marketing Management IN (Details)
Competence Center for Empirical Research Methods WE (Details)
Research areas (ÖSTAT Classification 'Statistik Austria')
5320 Marketing (Details)
5502 Occupational-, industrial psychology (Details)
5504 Experimental psychology (Details)
5511 Social psychology (Details)
5517 Organisational psychology (Details)
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