Quotation Wiebe, Kirsten, Bruckner, Martin, Giljum, Stefan, Lutz, Christian. 2012. Calculating energy-related CO2 emissions embodied in international trade using a global input-output model. Economic Systems Research 24 (2), 113-139.




The Global Resource Accounting Model (GRAM) is an environmentally-extended multi-regional input-output model, covering 48 sectors in 53 countries and two regions. Next to CO2 emissions, GRAM also includes different resource categories. Using GRAM, we are able to estimate the amount of carbon emissions embodied in international trade for each year between 1995 and 2005. These results include all origins and destinations of emissions, so that emissions can be allocated to countries consuming the products that embody these emissions. Net-CO2 imports of OECD countries increased by 80% between 1995 and 2005. These findings become particularly relevant, as the externalisation of environmental burden through international trade might be an effective strategy for industrialised countries to maintain high environmental quality within their own borders, while externalising the negative environmental consequences of their consumption processes to other parts of the world. This paper focuses on the methodological aspects and data requirements of the model, and shows results for selected countries and aggregated regions.


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Publication's profile

Status of publication Published
Affiliation WU
Type of publication Journal article
Journal Economic Systems Research
Citation Index SSCI
WU-Journal-Rating new VW-B
Language English
Title Calculating energy-related CO2 emissions embodied in international trade using a global input-output model
Volume 24
Number 2
Year 2012
Page from 113
Page to 139
Reviewed? Y
URL http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09535314.2011.643293
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09535314.2011.643293


Bruckner, Martin (Details)
Giljum, Stefan (Details)
Lutz, Christian
Wiebe, Kirsten
Institute for Ecological Economics IN (Details)
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