Quotation Jokubauskaite, Simona, Hössinger, Reinhard, Jara-Diaz, Sergio, Peer, Stefanie, Schneebaum, Alyssa, Schmid, Basil, Aschauer, Florian, Gerike, Regine, Axhausen, Kay, Leisch, Friedrich. 2021. The role of unpaid domestic work in explaining the gender gap in the (monetary) value of leisure. Transportation. 1-27.




The value of travel time savings (VTTS) representing the willingness to pay to reduce travel time, consists of two components: the value of liberating time [equal to the value of leisure (VoL)] and the value of time assigned to travel (VTAT), representing the travel conditions of a trip. Their relative values indicate which dimension to emphasize when investing in transport: speed or comfort. In this paper, we formulate and estimate a framework aimed at the improvement in the estimation of the VoL. By introducing a novel treatment of time assigned to domestic work, we consider that unpaid labor should be assigned a wage rate as a measure of the expenses avoided when assigning time to those chores. We use state-of-the-art data on time use and expenses as well as online data on gig workers collected in Austria, and apply the time-use and expenditure model of Jara-Diaz et al. (Transp Res Part B 42(10):946–957, 2008). The wage rates for paid and unpaid work were combined to re-formulate the budget constraint, which affected women more than men due to the higher involvement of the former in domestic activities. Compared against the original estimation, the VoL changed from €10/h for men and €6/h for women to €9/h for both genders, which in turn yields a larger average VTAT, which becomes positive for public transport. As a conclusion, the novel treatment of domestic labor contributes to closing the gap in the VoL between genders and highlights the power of unveiling the components behind the VTTS. The empirical findings imply that investments in travel time reductions rather than in comfort should be prioritized, given the very good conditions of public transport in Austria.


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Publication's profile

Status of publication Published
Affiliation WU
Type of publication Journal article
Journal Transportation
Citation Index SSCI
WU-Journal-Rating new VW-C
Language English
Title The role of unpaid domestic work in explaining the gender gap in the (monetary) value of leisure
Year 2021
Page from 1
Page to 27
Reviewed? Y
DOI https://doi.org/10.1007/s11116-021-10221-4
Open Access Y
Open Access Link https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11116-021-10221-4


Jokubauskaite, Simona (Former researcher)
Peer, Stefanie (Details)
Schneebaum, Alyssa (Details)
Aschauer, Florian (BOKU, Austria)
Axhausen, Kay (Eth Zurich, Switzerland)
Gerike, Regine (TU Dresden, Germany)
Hössinger, Reinhard (BOKU, Austria)
Jara-Diaz, Sergio (Universidad d Chile, Chile)
Leisch, Friedrich (BOKU, Austria)
Schmid, Basil (Eth Zurich, Switzerland)
Institute for Multi-Level Governance and Development IN (Details)
Research Institute for Spatial and Real Estate Economics FI (Details)
Research areas (ÖSTAT Classification 'Statistik Austria')
5300 Economics (Details)
5332 Transport economics (Details)
5351 Public economy (Details)
5915 Economic geography (Details)
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